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the overview effect: space exploration and human evolution pdf

THe overview effect: space exploration and human evolution, 3rd Edition, xvi-xvii, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA … “The chimeric eukaryote: Origin of the nucleus from the karyomastigont in amitochondriate protists.” PNAS, 97, 13, 6954–6959. Equal attention is given to each such interval. The extent of our genetic diversity will fade even further if we can compare it to the diversity of life that may exist elsewhere. Jour. Robotics and autonomous systems have been instrumental to space exploration by enabling scientific break-throughs and by fulfilling human curiosity and ambition to conquer new worlds. Visible anthropogenic ecological destruction is one of the key attributes. Now it is billions of light years – an increase of about six orders of magnitude. For cosmologists interested in the origin and evolution of the universe, the cosmological clock ticks logarithmically (Figure 3 above). Modern genome sequencing shows us our humble, pale green eukaryotic island among the ocean of genetic diversity of life on Earth. Planet Facts Interesting Planet Facts Mercury – The smallest and fastest planet, it zips around the Sun in only 88 Earth days.. Venus – Venus’ thick atmosphere makes it the hottest planet in our solar system.. Earth – The only planet in our solar system with liquid water on the surface.. Mars – Mars was a wet and warm planet billions of years ago. The ability to produce such images and to understand how small we are is an achievement that few species can boast about. As expected, the two World Wars (WW) led to dramatic reduction in the numbers of new chemical substances reported, as can be seen from the two dips in Fig. Free Press Publishers. & Papke, R.T. 2006. Lihat pula. Our position in the lower right of Figure 4 can be described by paraphrasing Sagan’s description of our pale blue dot (Sagan, 1994 – excerpt in Planetary Society, 2019). “Multigene Phylogeny of Choanozoa and the Origin of Animals.” PLoS ONE 3(5): e2098. Thus, when we find a fossil who looks remarkably like what we imagine our ancestors to have looked like, it is usually a dead distant cousin, not a great-great-great-great-… -grandparent (Dawkins & Wong 2016, Fournier et al. Nutman, A.P, Bennett, V.C., Friend, C.R.L., Van Kranendonk, M.J. & Chivas, A.R. Christian, D. 2004. Christian (2018) also has chronologically arranged sections beginning with the ancient “cosmos”, then the more recent “biosphere”, and finally the most recent “us”. The film also features insights from commentators and thinkers on the wider implications and importance of this understanding for society, and our … Like astronauts recognizing the common humanity of all people, this new deeper genealogy has us welcoming new members to our family. New landscapes of biological diversity show us our little lonely eukaryotic valley. In the great enveloping genetic unknown – in our obscure sexually-isolated eukaryotic corner, among enormous diversity, there is no hint that help will come from elsewhere to save us from our swollen brains and multicellular megalomania. Berkeley: Univ. “TimeTree: A Resource for Timelines, Timetrees, and Divergence Times.” Mol Biol Evol 34, 7, 1812-1819. Effects of Wars upon Exploration of the Space. The larger this overlap, the more uncertain is the order of the nodes. 2006. “Phylostratigraphic tracking of cancer genes suggests a link to the emergence of multicellularity in metazoa.” BMC Biol 8, 66. The triumph of the embryo. Mirroring ideas that had long been a staple of the Russian cosmist tradition, the Overview Effect described the euphoric feeling of universal connectedness experienced by many space travelers. & Halliday, A.N. The original spatial overview effect of astronauts is a re-conceptualization of where we are, based on new spatial or astronomical information about the space around us. Seeing the Earth from orbit transformed astronauts (e.g. This study also qualitatively mapped the breadth and depth of participants' present EABs, contributing first-time observations on attitudes towards specific ecological issues and behaviours pertaining to environmental movement activism and personal conservation practices. Sagan, L. 1967. Read honest and … Ours is a tiny trivial twig amongst the enormous diversity of life. Starting at the highest energy and earliest time possible (the Planck time 10-43 seconds after the Big Bang), the interval 10-43 of a second to 10-42 of a second is studied. Broadly speaking, the overview effect is a new larger perspective that shifts our ideas of where we think we are (White 2014, 2019). 1A. 2017. The Overview Effect: Space Exploration and Human Evolution, 2nd ed. “Horizontal gene transfer from extinct and extant lineages: biological innovation and the coral of life.” Phil. Domazet-Lošo & Tautz 2010, Trigos et al. Dawkins, R. & Wong, Y. They are networks of molecules and genes and endosymbiotic unions – perhaps as many convergences as divergences. The tree of life is constructed from the conserved and recognizably related sequences of DNA base pairs inside almost every cell of extant organisms. There are many well-known problems with such “vertical-only”, “divergence-only” approaches to the evolution of life. Left: the astronomical overview effect evoked by “Earthrise” taken on 24 December 1968 by astronaut William Anders during Apollo 8. They have not been cultured. The Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Coordination, 2007, 23 pages [PDF 0.4 MB].In 2006, 14 national space agencies took the unprecedented step of elaborating a vision for peaceful robotic and human space exploration, focusing on destinations within the solar system where humans may one day live and work, and developed a common set of key space exploration themes. Istilah dan konsep ini diciptakan pada tahun 1987 oleh Frank White dalam bukunya, The Overview Effect — Space Exploration and Human Evolution (Houghton-Mifflin, 1987), (AIAA, 1998). Origin Story, New York: Little, Brown and Company. The term and concept were coined in 1987 by Frank White, who explored the theme in his book The Overview Effect — Space Exploration and Human Evolution (Houghton-Mifflin, 1987; AIAA, 1998). “Evidence for early life in Earth’s oldest hydrothermal vent precipitates.” Nature, 543, 7643, 60-64. White 2014). “A new view of the tree of life.” Nature Microbiology, 1, 16048. The overview effect can be personal and private, or it can be the transformation of an entire culture’s weltanschauung. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. 2016. A spatial or astronomical overview effect comes from understanding the size of the universe and our place in it. But the tree of all life, especially as we get closer to the root, is not so simple. Our eukaryotic domain is a pale green sliver among the huge genetic diversity of life on Earth. O’Neill, I. Planetary exploration will begin with robotic precursors, but lead on to human exploration. Cavalier-Smith, T. Buiry, M.D. LUCA is located where the two deepest branches merge into one branch, but there is some ambiguity about which two those are. In The Overview Effect, Third Edition Frank White expands on his original concept, which has now gained worldwide recognition and exposure. Only the twigs of the tree of life are alive. Without sex, bacterial species are not isolated and so aren’t branches (Doolittle & Papke 2006). We have inserted the large red oval to indicate the most likely position of the root. We provide an overview of space robotics as a rapidly emerging field, covering basic concepts, definitions, historical context, and evolution. Here and there, the tree has been calibrated by the petrified remains of fossilized distant cousins. Think of the rivers of blood and cytoplasm spilled by all those predators and parasites so that in glory and triumph they could become the momentary masters of a eukaryotic corpse. Space exploration, the investigation, by means of crewed and uncrewed spacecraft, of the reaches of the universe beyond Earth’s atmosphere and the use of the information so gained to increase knowledge of the cosmos and benefit humanity. At node 40, about 2 billion years ago we meet our common ancestor with apple trees and bananas. This was necessary because Dawkins & Wong (2016) gave the name of the new group that was joining our group, but sometimes ignored the name of our group before and after the rendezvous. He has appeared on The Space Show hosted by Dr. David Livingston, and has given numerous speeches at space events. More realistic network-like evolution can be informatively compared to this vertical-transmission-only tree (Doolittle & Bapteste 2007, Bapteste et al. Significant adverse effects of long-term weightlessness include muscle atrophy and deterioration of the skeleton (spaceflight osteopenia). “The Human Brain in Space: Euphoria and the “Overview Effect” Experienced by Astronauts”, Universe Today, 2008-05-22, www.universetoday.com/14455/the-human-brain-in-space-euphoria-and-the-overview-effect-experienced-by-astronauts/ (Accessed 27/03/2019). interest both within and external to the agency for discussion of human exploration of the Moon. In 2009, at the urging of NASA’s Human Research Program, the authors published a book (2) with the aim of reviewing the existing knowledge and history of human nutrition for space light, with a key goal of identifying gaps in the knowledge base required to Oesch, P.A. The overview effect involves a new perspective that turns fanciful labels for the unknown (“here be dragons”, “terra nullius”, “sphere of the gods”) into meaningful labels, and for the first time, embeds these regions into the rest of the known world or universe. (reston, Va: 2016. We provide an overview of space robotics as a rapidly emerging field, covering basic concepts, definitions, historical context, and evolution. Logarithmic scales of space and time are often used to encompass and understand processes that have a large dynamic range (e.g. LUCA (or the root of the tree) should not be confused with the origin of life which precedes LUCA by some significant amount – perhaps by a few hundred million years. The key scientific rationales for Moon and Mars exploration include the formation and evolution of rocky planets, accretion and bombardment in the inner solar system, comparative planetology and astrobiology. Habitation in space will require extensive technological interfaces between humans and their alien “A Dying Universe: the long term fate and evolution of astrophysical objects.” Rev. Kolb, R. 2006. Astronauts show considerable breadth and depth in present attitudes and behaviours. et al. or mitigate some of the negative effects of space light on the human body. Images such as Apollo 8’s “Earthrise” and Sagan’s “Pale Blue Dot” have helped transform a civilization (Brand 1968, Sagan 1994). S. human space exploration to date is stil l i ntimately intertwined with wha t feminist critic Susan Faludi has called “ s e c u r i t y m y t h ” a n d “ n a t i o n a l i s t Robotics and autonomous systems have been instrumental to space exploration by enabling scientific breakthroughs and by fulfilling human curiosity and ambition to conquer new worlds. Kuhn (1962) has coined the term “paradigm shift” to describe a re-conceptualization intrinsic to scientific revolutions: Copernican, Darwinian, Einsteinian and Quantum Mechanical. The Evolution Of Rechargeable ... • NASA is planning a number of exciting robotic and human space exploration missions for the exploration of space – Robotic Lunar Exploration Missions (>2008) This biological overview can help us understand and navigate the integrated history of life and humanity. Frank White presented a number of such experiences in The Overview Effect: Space Exploration and Human Evolution , Houghton Mifflin, 1987. EVIDENCE BOOK OVERVIEW A. Evolution of the Evidence Book The original Evidence Book is a collection of Evidence Reports created from the information presented verbally and discussed within the HRP in 2006. Bailly, N. Bourgoin, T. Brusca, R.C. The powerful perspective and simplicity of Figure 4 and Table 1 are based on the vertical transmission of the most conserved core genes. 2008. Margulis, L. et al. “Integrated genomic and fossil evidence illuminates life’s early evolution and eukaryote origin.” Nature Ecology & Evolution, 2, 1556-1562. Five Ages of the Universe: inside the physics of eternity. The branches in Figure 4 show the extent of genetic diversity. There are groupings on many scales. His best-known work, The Overview Effect: Space Exploration and Human Evolution, is considered by many to be a seminal work in the field. “Genomics and the bacterial species problem”, Genome Biol., 7, 9, 116. LUCA is sometimes called the root of the tree of life, but “trunk” is a better word. By taking the lowest war time number of new compounds, we found that WW1 sent chemistry back by 37 y and WW2 by 16 y. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. The effect can be induced by the awe-inspiring vista from a mountain top, or by mind-broadening experiences in foreign lands. A spatial or astronomical overview effect comes from understanding the size of the universe and our place in it. Linnaeus, Darwin and modern biology have gradually shown us our place in nature. The aggregate of our breaths, heartbeats, and sexual desires, every human and non-human eukaryote, every playful puppy and petunia, every meerkat and mite, every mammal, reptile, amphibian and fish, every mushroom and mayfly, every dandelion and dragonfly, every blade of grass and every innocent wasp larvae eating its way out of a caterpillar, every parrot and paramecium, every oak tree and antelope, every kookaburra and cuttlefish, every deuterostome and protostome, every ant and anteater, every poisonous snake and harmless tadpole, every orca and ostrich, every salamander and sardine, every top predator and bottom feeder, every amoeba and armadillo, every loving octopus mother guarding her eggs and every predator trying to eat them, every dinosaur and dinoflagellate, and every tree fern and trilobite, every elephant and eel, every jawed fish and every jawless fish, and every life form with a rib or a jaw or a brain, every vertebrate and invertebrate in the history of eukaryotes lived there – in a pale green genetic sliver that emerged ~3 billion years ago from a small branch of the Archaea. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. For astronauts, the Earth was no longer a map divided into different coloured nations. Brand, S. 1968. The fourth column is the name of our group after being joined by the group in the second column. ‘Overview’ is a short film that explores this phenomenon through interviews with five astronauts who have experienced the Overview Effect. Notice that there is redundancy in that the name in the fourth column in rendezvous N, is the same as the name in the third column for rendezvous N+1. This was the first time humans travelled beyond low Earth orbit and saw their own home planet rising above the horizon of the Moon. But it took space-age exploration to show us how the moon is connected to human existence on a very fundamental level. Then the interval 10-42 of a second to 10-41 of a second is examined, etc. 2014, Ruggiero et al. The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the previously underexplored ecological dimension of the overview effect phenomenon – the cognitive shift in awareness experienced by astronauts as a result of seeing Earth from outer space – and to identify and describe its defining features. 2016. Look again at this pale green sliver. The overview effect involves a rapid paradigm shift, in which previous ideas and fundamental assumptions are undermined, rejected, and replaced by a larger, more accurate perspective. 2017. Where in the tree does the new chimeric organism belong? Adams, F. & Laughlin, G. 1999. Within our little cabal, my role usually was that of a spokesman at ... life. Huang, J. For some of the less well-understood, recently proposed branches, we have adopted the nomenclature of Cavalier-Smith and co-authors (e.g. At node 12, 96 million years ago we meet our common ancestor with dogs and cats. “Origin of the Moon: challenges and prospects.” Phil. “HDUV: The Hubble Deep UV Legacy Survey.” Astrophys. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. In Table 1, the numbers in the first column are rendezvous numbers (also known as phylostratigraphic nodes, cf. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. These rendezvous are when our closest relatives merge with us at the time of the common ancestor. 2009). Dodd, M.S. It is the experience of recognizing how small our tiny human twig is among the vast genetic diversity of life. “A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms” PLoS ONE 10(4):e0119248. Now we can talk about “our close cousins the mushrooms”. Biol., 14, 225-274. Inspired by Dawkins & Wong (2016) to get a better overview of our evolutionary identities, in Table 1 we have compiled the most concise taxonomic overview of the evolution of our lineage. Doolittle, W.F. The Overview Effect: Space Exploration and Human Evolution, 3rd edn. Further research to expand on this study's findings, as well as the purposive and strategic application of astronauts in national and international environmental communication and engagement initiatives, is suggested. Fournier, G.P. We become more anonymous, trivial and humble – and we haven’t even broached the topic of the multiverse. Our branch has grown as the bodies of our dead ancestors have piled up chronologically. המונח נטבע על ידי הסופר פרנק וויט ב-1987 שחקר את הנושא בספרו The Overview Effect — Space Exploration and Human Evolution. Cavalier-Smith et al. The original spatial overview effect of astronauts is a re-conceptualization of where we are, based on new spatial or astronomical information about the space around us. The ecological significance of the overview effect: Environmental attitudes and behaviours in astronauts. “Prokaryotic evolution and the tree of life are two different things.” Biology Direct, 2009, 4, 34. Sagan, C. 1994. & Bapteste, E. 2007. ; October 24 th 1946 ­– A captured V-2 rocket in US is launched to 105 km (65 miles) and records the first pictures from space. As we follow the eukaryotic branch back in time, we rendezvous with the Asgard group (represented in Figure 4 by Lokiarchaeota (“Loki.”) and Thorarchaeota (“Thor.”) and then with the TACK group and then with DPANN and the rest of the Archaea (see nodes 42-45 and caption of Table 1). 2017. Mod. White, F. 2014. 2017. Apollo, Voyager, astronomy, cartography, GPS and Google Maps offer us a broader and richer spatial map of where we are. From Big Bang to Galactic Civilization: A Big History Anthology, Primus. “On the Origin of Mitosing Cells.” J. Theor. For a given node N, the uncertainties on its date can sometimes overlap with the dates of nodes N+1 or N-1. Trigos, A. et al. We often think we are the soloist, but in the tree of all life, we are a small new voice in an ancient choir of prokaryotes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Betts et al. 2009). However, overview effects are not limited to a spatial re-conceptualization of where we are. Roy. Weiss, M.C. The tree of life is principally arranged using the chemical fossils of conserved genomes in all extant life forms. We can make images of the universe and map the space around us to distances of billions of light years. Pergeseran kognitif; Efek penerbangan luar angkasa terhadap tubuh manusia; Bumi Wahana Antariksa; Referensi We further present a technical road map of the field for … In this tree of life, ours is a small voice in a chorus of hundreds of millions of voices. 2019. Within its genetic boundaries every organism you have ever seen, every vertebrate you have ever loved, lived out their lives. 2017). The branches holding up the twigs represent the past lives of millions of ancestors and cousins. Doolittle, W.F. The purpose is to enlighten science and non-science readers to the benefits of space biology research for conducting basic and applied research to support human exploration of space. What happens when two organisms from different parts of the tree merge? It can come when a peasant farmer visits Paris for the first time, or when a renaissance explorer peruses a new, more comprehensive map of the world.

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